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25: Inheritance Part 1- Java Programming in Urdu

Inheritance

Inheritance can be defined as the process where one class acquires the properties (methods and fields) of another. With the use of inheritance the information is made manageable in a hierarchical order.
The class which inherits the properties of other is known as subclass (derived class, child class) and the class whose properties are inherited is known as super-class (base class, parent class).

Inheritance represents the IS-A relationship, also known as parent-child relationship.


Syntax of inheritance

class Super {
   .....
   .....
}
class Sub extends Super {
   .....
   .....
}


Following is an example demonstrating Java inheritance. In this example, you can observe two classes namely Calculation and My_Calculation.
class Calculation {
   int z;
    
   public void addition(int x, int y) {
      z = x + y;
      System.out.println("The sum of the given numbers:"+z);
   }
    
   public void Subtraction(int x, int y) {
      z = x - y;
      System.out.println("The difference between the given numbers:"+z);
   }
}

public class My_Calculation extends Calculation {
   public void multiplication(int x, int y) {
      z = x * y;
      System.out.println("The product of the given numbers:"+z);
   }
    
   public static void main(String args[]) {
      int a = 20, b = 10;
      My_Calculation demo = new My_Calculation();
      demo.addition(a, b);
      demo.Subtraction(a, b);
      demo.multiplication(a, b);
   }
}



Example:2
class Super_class {
   int num = 20;

   // display method of superclass
   public void display() {
      System.out.println("This is the display method of superclass");
   }
}

public class Sub_class extends Super_class {
   int num = 10;

   // display method of sub class
   public void display() {
      System.out.println("This is the display method of subclass");
   }

   public void my_method() {
      // Instantiating subclass
      Sub_class sub = new Sub_class();

      // Invoking the display() method of sub class
      sub.display();

      // Invoking the display() method of superclass
      super.display();

      // printing the value of variable num of subclass
      System.out.println("value of the variable named num in sub class:"+ sub.num);

      // printing the value of variable num of superclass
      System.out.println("value of the variable named num in super class:"+ super.num);
   }

   public static void main(String args[]) {
      Sub_class obj = new Sub_class();
      obj.my_method();
   }
}